Genghis Khan


Genghis Khan
1162 - 1227

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The founder, Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he started the Mongol invasions that would ultimately result in the conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by wholesale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in Khwarezmia. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.

Because of the lack of contemporary written records, there is very little factual information about the early life of Temüjin. The few sources that provide insight into this period often conflict.

Temujin was born in 1162.

On October 6, 2004, a joint Japanese-Mongolian archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be Genghis Khan's palace in rural Mongolia, which raises the possibility of actually locating the ruler's long-lost burial site.
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The Legend of Yoshitsune

Could Genghis Khan have actually been
a Japanese samurai who went to Mongolia?

At very the end of the 12th century, two samurai clans, Heishi and Genji had a large battle. In the end, the Genji clan, led by Minamoto no Yoritomo, demolished the Heishi and Yoritomo became a Shogun. He was not the first Shogun, but he was the first Shogun to organize his own government: a Shogunate. It was the beginning of the age of the samurai.

Yoritomo had a younger brother named Yoshitsune. He is one of the most popular samurai heroes of Japan, a great commander in chief and a very clever militarist. As the Shogunate government started to function, Shogun Yoritomo began to suspect Yoshitsune of planning to overtake his power.
Orthodox history says that Yoshitsune killed himself in the Koromogawa area of Hiraizumi located in the present-day Tohoku area of Japan.

However, in various areas of northern Japan -- Iwate, Aomori and Hokkaido -- there are many legends existing that say that Yoshitsune survived the battle and escaped further north. But there are more than oral legends. Old families of northern Japan have documents telling how Yoshitsune got a hold of fighting funds and supplies.

So if Yoshitsune had survived, how far did he go to escape? An old document of China, Jin-shi bie-yun [Accounts Other than Official Chronicles of Jin Country], tells of a son of Yoshitsune who became a general of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) that ruled Manchuria and Hebei. In addition to this, in the introduction of a document edited by government historians of the Qing Dynasty: Gu jin tu shu ji cheng [Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times], The Qianlong Emperor of Qing (reign 1735-1795), himself wrote that the rulers of the Qing Dynasty were descents of Yoshitsune. According to these documents, Yoshitsune must have gone to Hokkaido and from there to Manchuria.
As a military leader in Japan, Yoshitsune had been a genius at surprise attack, utilizing the mobility of cavalry. This was exactly how the Mongolian cavalry fought.
The first person who introduced this theory was a well known German Doctor, Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (1796-1866), who was sent to Japan in 1823 by the Dutch government. He carried out research and established a Western style medical school in Edo period Japan while it was still under the rule of samurai.

In his seven volume series “Nippon,” he wrote about Yoshitsune and Genghis Khan. During the Meiji period (1868-1912) after the modernization of Japan, some intelligentsia discussed this theory. However it was Oyabe Zenichiro’s substantial bestseller of 1924, Genghis Khan wa Minamoto-no-Yoshitsune Nari [Genghis Khan was Yoshitsune] which made this theory known to the public.
source : www.asios.org. Harada Minoru

. WKD : Yoshitsune and Benkei  

Yoshitsune Gikeiji Temple at Minmaya
「義経寺」(ぎけいじ) 三厩村

in a small fishing village in the Tsugaru peninsula
where a rock turned into a flying horse and brought him to Hokkaido.
When I stood in front of the rock, it was the first time I learned about the Hokkaido-China connection.

. WKD : The Yoshitsune Rock

and an external link to googlebooks
by Ann B. Irish

Hokkaido: A History of Ethnic Transition and Development


成吉思汗鍋 (じんぎすかんなべ)
"Genghis Khan Stew"

One speicality of Hokkaido is called "Genghis Khan," , the Chinese hot pot, or Mongolian hot pot, fillet of mutton barbecued on a special dome-shaped grill, then dipped in a specially seasoned sauce. It may be somewhat deceptive to call this dish Genghis Khan, after the heroic Mongolian warrior-king, for it comes not from Mongolia but from Qing period (AD1644-1912) Beijing. The recipe was brought from China by Japanese before the Second World War, and it was well-received in Hokkaido.

Until fairly recently, most Japanese did not eat lamb or mutton, but for those living in Hokkaido, sheep farming is a familiar way of life. They were willing to try the dish, and after making some changes to the Chinese method of cooking, Genghis Khan soon appeared on tables throughout Japan.

Jingisu kan nabe ジンギスカン鍋 Genghis Khan pot

Dschingis Khan Eintopf. Dschingis Kahn Barbeque.

humanity kigo for all winter


Genghis Khan restaurant named DARUMA
in Sapporo Central Ward


師走の夜 ジンギスカンへ連れが出来  

頭から ジンギスカンの火を覗き        

ジンギスカン鍋 蒜山三山 見てつつき    
gengisu kan nabe Hiruzen sanzan mite tsutsuki

Genghis Khan Stew -
I look at the three mountains of Hiruzen
and dig in

Inoue Fuyuko 井上婦由湖

source : yomibitoshirazu.com

Hiruzen Highlands are located in Okayama prefecture. There are many pastures and the famous Jersy cows. A lot of milk, butter and bisquits are sold as local souvenirs.

. WASHOKU : Food from Hiruzen  


Haiku with the food and various kigo

炎天下 この家今夜は ジンギスカン
イワシ雲 この家今夜は ジンギスカン

炎天下 焼いて食べたら ジンギスカン
干草を 焼いて食べたら ジンギスカン
春夜空 焼いて食べたら ジンギスカン
風かおる 焼いて食べたら ジンギスカン
ふきのとう 焼いて食べたら ジンギスカン
source : bokunatu


The Mongol Intelligence Apparatus:
The Triumphs of Genghis Khan’s Spy Network
By John Ty Grubbs, 2010

Intelligence has played a role in most, if not all, militarized disputes in history. Long before U-2 spy planes and explosive-filled undergarments, leaders sought out information regarding their enemies’ strengths, weaknesses, motivations, etc. Accurate reliable intelligence is a lethal weapon on the battlefield. Today, Western intelligence agencies sift through mountains of data and exploit an untold number of human sources in order to improve situational awareness against various asymmetric threats. Many of these threats are emanating from Asia and the Middle East. Gathering intelligence in these regions has never been easy. Xenophobia is pervasive in these areas where tribes and clans often hold more clout than religion and nationality. Those able to extract intelligence from this region can conquer enemies of monetary and numerical superiority.

In 1162, a young Mongol boy by the name of Temujin was born with a blood clot in his fist. This was said to be a sign of a great leader. The prophecy was fulfilled in a way few could have foreseen. Temujin was to become the leader of one of the greatest empires in human history. He was a great military strategist, but his unparalleled ability to run intelligence operations was the key to his victories.

source : www.medievalists.net


. Genghis Khan


Haiku and Senryu

Chinese New Year's Eve
steam rising from Genghis Khan Stew
for one

. . . . .

grassy fields . . .
Genghis Khan rode his horse
over barren sands

Chen-ou Liu

The poem is inspired by an article entitled Genghis Khan: environmentalist?, in which the reporter states that "[Genghis Khan's] Mongol invasion was partly environmentally friendly, according to new research."

By examining periods of war and death, researchers at the Carnegie Institution in California have discovered that some actually helped allow forests to re-grow and limit carbon dioxide in the air.

One Toronto expert, however, argues the eco affect of Genghis Khan’s invasion is just a “blip” in climate history.

Longer-lasting ones such as the Mongol invasion during the 1200s and 1300s gave enough time for forests to re-grow once land had been abandoned after being conquered.

The Egyptians intentionally deforested their enemies’ areas to stop them from using timber to build boats. The Genghis Khan eco-friendly discovery, he added, is not typical of history.

“The message here is that it’s not very common that large-scale conflict would have any positive environmental impact,” he said.

“Genghis Khan being a hero of the green, that’s a bit of a politically disingenuous association to make."
source : www.thestar.com

Related words


***** Personal Names used in Haiku

***** Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets 


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