4/15/2007

Castle (shiro)

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Castle (shiro 城)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Non-seasonal Topic
***** Category: Humanity


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Explanation

Japanese castles (城, shiro) were fortresses composed primarily of wood and stone. They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries, and came into their most well-known form in the 16th century. Like European castles, the castles of Japan were built to guard important or strategic sites, such as ports, river crossings, or crossroads, and almost always incorporated the landscape into their defense.

Though they were built to last, and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed primarily of wood, and many were destroyed over the years. This was especially true during the Sengoku ('Warring States') period (1467-1603), when many of these castles were first built. However, many were rebuilt, either later in the Sengoku period, in the Edo period (1603-1867) which followed, or more recently, as national heritage sites or museums.

Today, there are around fifty castles extant, or partially extant, in Japan; it is estimated that once there were five thousand. Some castles, such as the ones at Matsue and Kōchi, both built in 1611, remain extant in their original forms, not having suffered any damage from siege or other threats. Hiroshima Castle, on the opposite end of the spectrum, was destroyed in the atomic bombing, and was rebuilt in 1958 as a museum.

Originally conceived of purely as fortresses, their primary purpose being military defense, Japanese castles were originally placed in strategic locations, along trade routes, roads and rivers. Though castles continued to be built with these considerations in mind, for centuries fortresses were also built to serve as centers of governance.

By the Sengoku period, they had come to serve as the homes of daimyo (feudal lords), and served to impress and intimidate rivals not only with their defenses, but with their size and elegant interiors, architecture and decorations. Oda Nobunaga was one of the first to build one of these palace-like castles, at Azuchi Castle in 1576; this was Japan's first castle to have a tower keep (天守閣, tenshukaku), and it inspired both Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle and Tokugawa Ieyasu's Edo Castle.

Azuchi served as the governing center of Oda's territories, and as his lavish home, but it was also very keenly strategically placed. A short distance away from the capital of Kyoto, which had long been a target of violence, Azuchi's carefully chosen location allowed it a great degree of control over the transportation and communication routes of Oda's enemies.

Read the details HERE
WIKIPEDIA


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Famous folding screen about the construction of a castle from the Momoyama period.
築城図屏風 / ちくじょうずびょうぶ

Click on the thumbnail to see the details, in Japanese.

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Fukuyama Castle

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Tsuyama Castle 津山城

It took lot of people to built a castle. The technical groundwork, water ways and stone walls were in the supervision of the fushin bugyoo 普請奉行, whereas the architectural works, buildings, watchtowers (yagura) and parks (goten) were in the supervision of the sakuji bugyoo 作事奉行.

It took Lord Moori 13 years to have the castle constructed, and it was finally finished in 1616. But in 1874 it was destroyed. Now we can still enjoy the stonewalls with 1000 cherry blossoms in spring. A new white watchtower was finished two years ago.




Take a walk in Tsuyama Castle with the Cherry Blossoms, 2007 !

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 Edo Castle 江戸城 Edo joo
Das Schloss von Edo


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Nagoya Castle 名古屋城 Nagoya joo

Exhibition
The Glory of Four Centuries Past, Revived
よみがえる400年前の輝き
September 19, 2009 – November 23, 2009
Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts


Nagoya Castle is the preeminent symbol of Nagoya. To bring back the vibrant colors of 400-year-old artworks on the partitions that adorned the interior of the Hommaru (Castle Keep)Palace, the full-scale restorative reproduction project was commenced in 1992 (Heisei 4). This exhibition will captivate visitors with not only the artworks, but also the restorative reproduction process itself. In commemorative of the restorative construction of Hommaru (Castle Keep) Palace from January 2009, we will exhibit major works such as those in the entrance, the Omote-shoin (main drawing room) and the Taimen-jo (reception hall).

source : www.nagoya-boston.or.jp


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Osaka Castle 大阪城

- quote -
Osaka Castle -- One Big Mistake
With the 400th anniversary of the battle and fall of Osaka Castle almost upon us, and despite being one of the iconic scenes of Japan, Osaka Castle's current Tenshu, a ferro-concrete tower reconstructed in 1928 is historically, very inaccurate, incorporating an interesting mix of old and new, and of differing clan and colors.
It was constructed based on the shape and design of the Toyotomi period Osaka Castle, but built on top of the 1620's reconstructed Tokugawa period Tenshudai, or tower base --a completely different shape! The original Osaka Castle featured black walls and dark grey roof tiles, but the current castle has been built in the white walled, green copper-sheet roofed design preferred by the Tokugawa clan. The Current Osaka Castle's uppermost floors have been painted black on the exterior, and golden decorations of tigers and cranes have been painted on to better resemble the original Toyotomi period castle. Despite it being a Tokugawa castle by appearance, it features the Toyotomi crest in various places.


- - Toyotomi Period Osaka Castle.

Incidentally, the Tokugawa Osaka Castle keep was constructed 50 meters west of the original Toyotomi period keep, and so the positions too are different. The only thing correct about the current concrete keep is that it has 5 floors on the outside, but 8 floors inside. The Toyotomi and the Tokugawa keeps both had 8 floors too. So, could Osaka Castle not be reconstructed? No. Not accurately. The reasons? First, Osaka would have to choose whether they wanted the Toyotomi or Tokugawa keeps rebuilt. The Toyotomi keep's base was destroyed by the Tokugawa in the 1620's, although the land is now left vacant. No plans for the original castle keep exist, which poses the biggest problem. If they chose to build the Tokugawa period Osaka Castle, the shape and size would be smaller than it is now, and again, as this was destroyed in 1665. No plans remain of the Tokugawa period castle either, and as no photographic evidence remains, by law, the castle cannot be re-built.

One positive side to Osaka Castle, 13 original Tokugawa Period structures remain, and have been designated as Important Cultural Assets.
- source : Samurai History and Culture -




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Worldwide use

- Die Drei berühmten Schlösser Japans
Himeji-jō
Kumamoto-jō
Matsumoto-jō

Japanische Burgen
Shachihoko - der "Giebelkarpfen"
http://www.tabibito.de/japan/burgen.html


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Things found on the way


道の駅 そばの城
Highway Service Area "Soba Castle"


This dish served with a little castle tower is called
TONOSAMA 殿様, Lord of the Castle.


長野県下伊那郡下條村睦沢4331-5
There is also the possibility to make your own buckwheat noodles there.

 WASHOKU
Roadside stations (michi no eki 道の駅)




CLICK for more photos

信州そば三城 "Three Castles" Soba Shop
(しんしゆうそばさんしろ)
茨城県神栖市大野原1ー24ー1



Castles and famous food


Himeji 姫路名物『お城やき』O-Shiro-Yaki

Hirosaki, Oden 弘前城名物
Kumamoto, Ikinari Dango 熊本城名物 いきなりだんご
Nagoya, Kishimen 名古屋城名物
Nagoya, Shachi 名古屋城(金シャチ焼本体)
Okayama, kohi senbei 岡山城名物
Osaka, soft cream 大阪城名物
. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


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Click for more photos

tenshu, tenshukaku 天守 / 天守閣
the main castle tower


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This site is a Guide to the 136 castles in Japan.
also in 日本語.
My aim is to make this the most authoritative and comprehensive site available in English on Japanese castles.
Eric Obershaw
Corporate Librarian, Tokyo, Japan
source : www.jcastle.info


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HAIKU


夕立や登城の名主組がしら
yûdachi ya tojô no nanushi kumigashira

a cloudburst--
running to the castle
village headman and sergeant




朝がすみ天守の雨戸聞へけり
asa-gasumi tenshu no amado kikoe keri

morning mist--
the castle's shutters
bang open


Issa, Tr. David Lanoue


kumigashira くみがしら【組頭/与頭】
The leaders of a group of soldiers, for example foot soldiers 徒組, soldiers with bows 弓組 or soldiers with rifles 鉄砲組.
The system of "five are a group", goningumi 五人組 had a leader for each group.
The headman of a village was also called this way, or 長(おさ)百姓.
There are many books about these officials in the Edo period.




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天守より月に投げたる絵皿かな
tenshu yori tsuki ni nagetaru ezara kana

from the castle tower
towart the moon I throw
a plate with a picture


Oya Tatsuji (Ooya) 大屋達治 (1952 - )


ezara, plates with colorful paintings
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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looking up
at the castle tower -
I am the ANT


Look with me ! Gabi Greve


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Related words

***** Samurai, Warrior


***** Kiken Castle (kikenjoo 善見城)
kigo for late spring

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9 comments:

Gabi Greve said...

.
EDO CASTLE
the castle in Toky


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Gabi Greve - PMJS said...

Discussion about Japanese castles at the PMJS google group
.

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/pmjs/KAHWFmMYKjA
.

Gabi Greve - Basho archives said...

Matsuo Basho at Yamashiro and Ide (south of Kyoto)

山城へ井出の駕籠借る時雨哉
Yamashiro e Ide no kago karu shigure kana

to Yamashiro
I had to use a sedan chair from Ide
because of the winter sleet . . .

Yamashiro, lit. Mountain Castle
.

Gabi Greve - Masaoka Shiki said...

Masaoka Shiki

Matsuyama ya aki yori takaki tenshukaku

"Oh Matsuyama,
the castle tower looks higher than the autumn sky."

Gabi Greve - Masaoka Shiki said...

Masaoka Shiki

松山の城を見おろす寒さかな
Matsuyama no shiro o miorosu samusa kana

this coldness
looking down from the castle
of Matsuyama

His hometown, Matsuyama

Gabi Greve - Masaoka Shiki said...

Masaoka Shiki

春風や城あらはるゝ松の上
harukaze ya shiro arawaruru matsu no ue

spring breeze -
the castle shows
above the pines

Gabi Greve - Masaoka Shiki said...

Masaoka Shiki

お城から見るや種蒔く三十里
o-shiro kara miru ya tanemaku sanjuu ri

from the castle
I see them sowing seeds -
for 30 ri

Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規

one RI is about 4 km.
Here Shiki is taling about the castle of Matsuyama and the surrounding fertile plains.
.
seeds in spring

Gabi Greve - Basho archives said...

Matsuo Basho

城跡や古井の清水まづ訪はん
shiro-ato ya furu-i no shimizu mazu towan

about the ruins of Inabayama castle 稲葉山城.

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

quote Japan Times

Kyoto construction site yields apparent ruins of Hideyoshi’s ‘phantom castle’

KYOTO – Parts of stone walls and gold-plated roof tiles believed to be the ruins of Shigetsu Castle have been discovered at the construction site for a new apartment complex in Fushimi Ward, Kyoto, a private research firm has announced.

Feudal leader Toyotomi Hideyoshi began construction on the castle in 1592, a year after he ended his regency. But it was called a “phantom castle” because it was said to have been destroyed by an earthquake in 1596, and no remnants had ever been found.

Researchers have excavated some 36 meters of stone wall about 0.5 to 1 meter high and 2 meters thick, more than 100 fragments of gold-plated roof tiles, and the remains of a 5- to 7-meter-wide, 2-meter-deep moat, according to Kyoto-based firm Kyoto Heian Bunkazai.

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